earth, ground, land

noun natural_phenomenon

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *awą́•-

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *awá

Crow awá ‘land’ RG, GG:13, RGG:19

Hidatsa awá ‘earth, ground, land’ J

Pre-Mandan *wą•-

Mandan wą́•ʔąk ‘ground’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *mą́-

Proto-Dakota *mąh-ka

Lakota makhá RTC

Dakota maká, mak’á , †makhá ‘earth, ground’ SRR:305b

Stoney mąkh- PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere

Hoocąk mą́ą ‘earth, ground; year’ KM:1929 , mąą

Proto-Dhegiha *mą-ðį́hka RR

Omaha-Ponca mąnį́kka ‘soil, earth’ RR

Kanza/Kaw mąyį́kka ~ mǫ́įkka ‘earth, clay’ RR

Osage moⁿ-thiⁿ́-ḳa ‘earth, soil, clay, mud’ LF:102b , mąðį́hka ‘soil, ground, earth, clay, mud, dirt’ CQ

Quapaw mąnį́kka ‘earth, soil, ground’ JOD

Proto-Southeastern *amą́•(-ri)

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *amą

Biloxi maⁿ, ma, amá, hama , †amą́ ‘ground’ D&S:226b

Ofo ā´maⁿ , †á•mą ‘land, country, ground’ D&S:320b, JSS

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo amāni, amāi , †amą́•(-ni) ‘land, earth, world’ H , amĕⁿ , †amą́•(-ni) HW

Saponi Massa-moni ‘paint creek’ Byrd

Proto-Catawba

Catawba mánu• ‘ground’ FS

General comment

Phonetically similar forms are found in Algonquian, Caddoan, Iroquoian, Hokan, etc. The Proto-Siouan post-accentual consonant is difficult to determine.

Several subgroups suggest -r, while only MVS shows clear reflexes of -h. Instances of -r could be epenthetic between the root and suffix-initial vowels (as is frequently the case), or -re could be an instance of morpheme replacement and generalization of a common suffix. The Proto-Dakota *h is unexplained. Cf. ‘mud, dirt, earth’.

Other languages

  • RR: PA *-a:meHk- (medial), *-a:meHkw- (noun final) Aubin-28 (from Go.)
Details Language Word Source