darkness (1)

noun perceptual_visual

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *hą́•

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *hahpV-

Crow chihpashí ‘darkness’ GG:36

Hidatsa háphe•hiša ‘pitch dark’ J , ha’péṡa , †hahpéša ‘dark, devoid of light’ WM

Pre-Mandan *hą́•- (?)

Mandan hą́xurare ‘bat’ H:70

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *hą́•

Proto-Dakota *hą́-, *hąhépi

Lakota hą́, hąhépi, hąyótu ‘night’ , hąʔíyoto ‘late at night’

Dakota haŋ ‘night’ SRR:123a

Yanktonai haŋhépi ‘night’ SRR:123a

Stoney hį́•hą ‘last night’ PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *hą́•he

Chiwere hą́•he ‘night’ RR

Hoocąk hąąhé ‘be night’ KM:752 , hąąhe

Proto-Dhegiha *hą́

Omaha-Ponca ‘night’ RR

Kanza/Kaw hą́, hǫ́, hą́ye ‘night’ RR

Osage hoⁿ , †hą́ ‘night’ LF:63b

Quapaw hą́, hǫ́ ‘night’ RR

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo usīhā, ohsīhā ‘darkness’ H

General comment

The Mandan etymology (*hą ‘night’ + *xura•re ‘eagle’) was suggested by JEK. This root is most often found in compounds, and in some languages only occurs there. The -(hi)šV found in Crow/Hidatsa forms is a similitive. Crow has prefixed ki-. The Proto-Crow-Hidatsa may be comparable to Dakotan hąhep-; alternatively it may represent a compound of ‘darkness (1)’ and ‘darkness (2)’.

Details Language Word Source