cry

verb psychic_emotion_expression

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *xa•kE

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa

Hidatsa cá•kE ‘grieve, mourn’ J , cá•ki

Pre-Mandan *-šak-

Mandan ó•kašakoʔš ‘he shouted’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ɣa•ke RR

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ɣá•ke

Chiwere xa•gé, xá•ge RR

Hoocąk ɣáak ‘cry (as child); crow (rooster)’ KM:477 , ǧaak

Proto-Dhegiha *ɣaké

Omaha-Ponca xage, ɣagé JOD

Kanza/Kaw xagé ‘cry’ [buxáge, -ɣa-] RR , buxáge, -ɣa- ‘cry, make by rubbing, weight, etc.’ [gaxáge, -ɣage] JOD, RR , gaxáge, -ɣage ‘cry, cause by striking’ [yaɣáge, -xáge] MR, JOD, RR , nąxáge ‘cry, cause by kicking or stamping on’ [yuɣáge, -xage] MR, RR , báɣage ‘cry, cause from cutting’ JOD, RR , baɣáge ‘cry, cause from pushing’ JOD, RR , bóɣage ‘whine, verb or noun, riccochet’ JOD, RR , yaɣáge, -xáge ‘cry or to make cry by biting’ JOD, SRR, RR , yuɣáge, -xage ‘cry, make by holding, squeezing, pinching’ MR, JOD, RR

Osage xagé , †ɣaké ‘weep, cry’ LF:217a

Quapaw ɣaké ‘cry’ JOD , ɣáke, di- ‘cry, cause by squeezing’ RR

Proto-Southeastern *xa•k-

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi áxạḳoⁿní , †áxək-ǫnį́ ‘be poor’ , áxạḳoⁿyĕ´ , †áxək-ǫ-yé ‘make one poor, treat ill’ D&S:219a

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo qāąise , †xá•ka ‘cry’ H , qaka , †xá•ka ‘weep’

Proto-Catawba

Catawba ake ‘weep’ KS

General comment

This is one of the rare roots that consistently shows initial ɣ in MVS. Even in Kanza/Kaw and Osage it is recorded with initial ɣ by JOD. In all probability this indicates an initial element now missing in MVS. Hidatsa and Mandan show a different ablaut grade. Crow číaximourn’ and corresponding Hidatsa kí•xi ‘whimper, whine’ do not line up phonologically.

Details Language Word Source