contrastive

particle n/a

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan *ha

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa

Hidatsa ha- in: haš ‘but’ J , ha-, -á in: haššá ‘but’ J

Proto-Mississipi-Valley

Proto-Dakota

Lakota -ha in: ecą́leha ‘but instead’ [his seems to be used only in combinations] EB:137 , -ha in: éha ‘instead, on the contrary’ EB:139 , -há- in: ehákaleš ‘just for that, in that case’ EB:139 , -há- in: eháš ‘surely, truly, certainly, indeed, unusually, undoubtedly’ EB:254 , -ha in: iyéha ‘instead, rather he (she)’ TB:501a , -há in: tukhá ‘but’ EB:501 , -há- in: tukháš ‘but’

Proto-Southeastern

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi ha , †ha ‘or’ [placed after the second of two nouns] D&S:192b

General comment

A speculative set. Cf. ‘emphatic, contrastive, but’ Initial h- is most often lost in Biloxi, and most apparent instances are from Proto-Siouan .

Details Language Word Source