collective (motion verbs)

n/a

Proto-Siouan-Catawba

Proto-Siouan

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *a-

Proto-Dakota

Lakota a- [3rd person; no additional plural]

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *a-

Chiwere a- [motion and positional verbs]

Hoocąk ha- , ha-

Proto-Dhegiha *a-

Omaha-Ponca a- JOD

Kanza/Kaw a- RR

Osage a- RR

Quapaw a- RR

Proto-Southeastern *a-

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo

Biloxi a- [Motion verbs, no suffixed plural] PFE:75b

Proto-Tutelo-Saponi

Tutelo a- in: alewa ‘be going’ JOD

General comment

The prefix is sometimes lacking in conjugated forms in DH, but is usually present. It occurs in 3rd singular and all plural forms of the verb.

The prefix is not found in Sioux Valley (Sioux Valley) Dakota (PAssiniboine).

Details Language Word Source