brother (5) BrYo

noun social_kin


Proto-Siouan *(i-)sų́•(-ka)

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *i-cu•ká

Crow iču•ká ‘younger brother’ RG, GG:73, RGG:22

Hidatsa icu•ká ‘younger brother, man’s or woman’s’ J

Pre-Mandan *-šų•ka

Mandan košų́ka ‘his younger brother’ H:238 , wįšų́•ka ‘my younger brother’ RTC , rųšų́•ks ‘our younger brother’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *i-sų́ka

Proto-Dakota *sų(-ka)

Lakota misų́ ‘my younger brother’ RTC , sųkáku ‘his younger brother’ RTC

Stoney sųgá PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *hisų́ke

Chiwere hiθų́ŋe ‘younger brother’ RTC

Hoocąk hisų́k, híisųk ‘younger brother (man or woman speaking)’ KM:1076 , hisųk

Proto-Dhegiha *isǫ́ka

Omaha-Ponca isǫ́ga ‘younger brother’ RTC

Kanza/Kaw isǫ́ga, isą́ga ‘younger brother’ RR

Osage isą́ke ‘younger brother’ RR

Quapaw isą́ke ‘younger brother’ RR

Proto-Southeastern *(i-)sų́t-ka

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *sǫt-k

Biloxi soⁿtkáka, sûⁿtkáka , †sǫtkáka ‘male’s younger brother’ D&S:257b , noxwí sóⁿtka , †sǫtkáka ‘Saturday’ D&S:232

Ofo ạkĭfhûⁿ´tku , †əkifhų́tku ‘Saturday’ D&S:320a


Tutelo wisuñtk; sun´tka (in paradigm) , †i-sų́tka ‘my younger brother’ H , esonṭk´ , †i-sų́tka HW , ecŭⁿtk´, micŭⁿtk´ , †i-sų́tka JOD

General comment

The intrusive -t- in Tutelo, Biloxi and Ofo is one of the relatively few isoglosses that can be used to define OVS or SE Siouan. The Ofo term for ‘Saturday’ most likely refers to ‘(Sunday’s) little brother’, clearly the etymology of the Biloxi term for ‘Saturday’ and a Choctaw calque. The possessive, underlying kih < *kik, provides the syllable final consonant that explains the fh cluster. Here, as elsewhere in Ofo, fh < an older *hs. OVS -tk- in this word has never been explained. It is not reconstructed to Proto-Siouan because, as noted above, none of its expected reflexes appears in languages outside of OVS. Given the vowel length in Crow/Hidatsa, we would expect to find the same in Chiwere/Hoocąk, but we do not. We would expect length here in the second syllable, and -- finding what we expect in Crow/Hidatsa -- we reconstruct it to Proto-Siouan. Mandan ko-, probably related to Lakota -ku and to Ofo -ku, is used as an apparent possessive with several kin terms. Its use is not fully understood at this time.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources