break off pieces (3)

verb physical_contact_deformation


Proto-Siouan *-špí

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *špi

Crow -špi, dú- ‘break open’ [redupl, pá- ‘by force’ prefix] RG, GG:44 , p’špušpi ‘break open with a pointed object’ [daC-] GG:53 , dašpí ‘single out, cut (horse)’ RGG:25

Hidatsa -špí, na- ‘finish talking (cut it off?)’ [striking prefix] J


Proto-Dakota *-špi

Lakota -špí, na- ‘break off e.g. fruit with the foot’ EB:359b , -špí, wo- ‘shoot off e.g. fruit’ EB:609b , wóšpi ‘pick berries; take gifts from a Christmas tree, > give gifts’ EJ , -špí, ya- ‘pick off, as do birds berries’ EB:628b , -špí, yu- ‘pick or gather e.g. berries, to pull off, pick off e.g. cherrie s from a tree’ EB:652b

Dakota yuśpí ‘pick or gather’ SRR:642b

General comment

Lakota -špa larger things; -špi smaller things. Kanza/Kaw gašpǘwe ‘shell corn’ could be related, but there is an alternate root, špü alone, q.v., which is found in other DH languages with the same meaning. Thus, rounding is likely organic here.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources