break off (2)

verb physical_contact_deformation


Proto-Siouan *-ksE

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ksE

Proto-Dakota *-ksA

Lakota -ksA´, pa- ‘break something with the hand by pushing or pressure; sitting e .g. on a board and breaking it’ EB:429a , -ksA´, wa- ‘cut off e.g. a stick with a knife or saw; to separate anything by cutting crosswise’ EB:533a , -ksA´, wo- ‘break off by punching or shooting e.g. a stick, limb etc.; to b reak while running, as a team running against a tree and b’ EB:604a , -ksA, wó- ‘pull e.g. corn’ EB:604a , -ksA´, ya- ‘bite off e.g. a stick’ EB:623a , -ksA´, yu- ‘break off e.g. a stick with the hand’ EB:642a , -ksA, aká- ‘cut off on something, cut off from, cut off in addition to’ EB:68a , -ksA´, na- ‘break off e.g. a stick in two with the foot’ EB:350a , kse ‘behave unacceptably’ EJ

Stoney -kθa PAS

Proto-Dhegiha *-se

Omaha-Ponca thiçe , †ðisé ‘break’ MAS:53

Kanza/Kaw basé ‘break, as bread, etc. pushing’ RR , báse ‘slice, cut bread, meat, etc.’ RR , bóse ‘break a cord by shooting’ JOD , büsé ‘break off from weight or pressure’ JOD , gasé ‘cut, sever’ RR , nąsé ‘cut, mow with a mowing machine’ RR , yasé ‘bite off, bite the tongue’ RR , yüsé ‘break, as bread, with the hands, to pick’ RR

Osage báçe , †pase ‘cut hair, rope or cord with a knife’ LF:18b

Quapaw ánase ‘intercept, head off’ RR , disé ‘pick, harvest corn’ RR , páse ‘cut off with a knife’ RR



Biloxi ksĕ´di , †kse ‘break by hand’ D&S:213a , naksĕ´di , †kse ‘break (a stick) with the foot’ D&S:213a


Catawba ‘cut wood’ KS

General comment

Unless the Omaha-Ponca form cited under *ksa ‘cut off’, q.v., can occur separately from ðisé, there are no (other) DH confirmations of a -sa root. This would mean that Biloxi really provides the only evidence for two separate roots *kse/*ksa. If this is the case, it might be best to look upon the Biloxi case as a language-specific lexicalization of the two vocalic ablaut grades.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources