break loose > dislocate

verb physical_contact_deformation



Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-pšų́

Proto-Dakota *-pšų́

Lakota -pšų́, na- ‘break by kicking, to dislocate the foot or leg; to put out of joint e.g. a foot or leg’ EB:356a , -pšų́, pa- ‘put out of joint or dislocate e.g. one’s arm; to sprain one’s own’ EB:432b , -pšų́, wa- ‘cut round a joint, to joint with a knife, to cut or saw asunder, as when two bones are tightly joined’ EB:548b , -pšų, awá- ‘unjoint with a knife on anything’ EB:98b , -pšų́, ya- ‘cast off or shed e.g. teeth; to pull and break with the mouth’ EB:626b , -pšų́, yu- ‘pull out sideways, to pull and break, i.e. not by the roots whi ch is yuju’n.’ EB:648a , -pšų, ka- ‘break something by striking, as a ball hitting a tooth to knock out, as a tooth; to dislocate, as a joint, by striking;’ EB:287b , -pšų, wó- ‘break something by dropping, or by falling’ EB:607b , iwópšų ‘bend e.g. a knee sideways and dislocate it’ EJ

Dakota papśúŋ ‘put out of joint’ SRR:412a


Kanza/Kaw -xǫ, bá-, báxwǫ ‘saw, cut across the grain’ MR, JOD, RR , -xǫ́, ba-, baxwǫ́ ‘push on and break or crack’ MR, JOD, RR , -xǫ́, ga-, gaxwǫ́ ‘break, as a stick, nail, ear of corn’ RR , -xǫ́, ną- nąxwǫ́, noxó ‘step on sth., as a stick, and break it’ RR , -xǫ́, ya- ‘break with the teeth’ RR , -xǫ́, yü- ‘break or crack sth. pulling on it’ RR

Quapaw -šǫ́, ną- ‘dislocate, trip and break’ RR , -šǫšǫ, pá- ‘cut into small pieces w. knife’ RR , -xǫ, áka- ‘break by striking upon sth.’ RR , -xǫ, pá- ‘cut apart, disjoint’ RR , -xǫ, pó- ‘shoot in two, break punching’ RR , -xǫ́, bi- ‘break, crush’ RR , -xǫ́, da- ‘break by biting’ RR , -xǫ́, di- ‘break, as a stick w. the hands’ RR , -xǫ́, ka- ‘break sth. by hitting it’ RR

General comment

More than one fricative grade is attested for this root, but š is the only one reconstructible at present. Normally initial clusters with apparent Proto-Siouan *pC would go back to pre-Proto-Siouan *wa-C- (where *wa- is an indefinite transitive object), with p developing via initial syllable vowel syncope. It is possible that this is the case here also.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources