turn over (1), roll (1)



Proto-Siouan *ptą•(-he)

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *hta•

Crow páššíi ‘overturned’ GG:53 , čipaššíi ‘turn over’ GG:38 , páttatchia ‘rolling’ GG:53

Hidatsa hta•, pa- ‘tip over, roll over’ [rka] J , htahtE, ná- ‘bite down on a hidden bone or something hard’ J , htáhtE, ara- ‘step on sth. and rock, twist ankle’ J , tahtE, nak- ‘shaky, unstable’ J , tahtE, pá- ‘roll, roll over’ J

Pre-Mandan *-ptąh-

Mandan kiptą́hoʔš ‘he turned back’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-ptą

Proto-Dakota *ptą

Lakota ptą́ ‘turn’ EB:785b , ptą́ptą, ka- ‘turn over and over’ EB:288 , ptą́, pa- ‘turn over’ EB:433 , ptą́ptą, pa- ‘wallow about, roll over, to writhe’ EB:433 , ptą́ptą, yu- ‘turn or roll back and forth with the hand, to rock’ EB:648 , ptą, ų́na- ‘sidling, inclined toward one side’ EB:507

Proto-Dhegiha *-htą́(-ra)

Omaha-Ponca patoⁿ , †battą ‘roll’ MAS:149

Kanza/Kaw ttą́, ga- ‘throw the lead to measure depth’ RR , ttą́hą, yü- ‘pull around, make turn by pulling’ RR

Quapaw ttą́ni, di- ‘spin someone around, whirl’ RR

General comment

Normally pC clusters in Lakota and Mandan and their various reflexes in the other languages come from Proto-Siouan *wa-C- sequences. Here, however, even Hidatsa has a reflex of *pt in ht, so the cluster must at least provisionally be reconstructed. Here the DH cognates show a variety of different root extensions.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources