turn (2)




Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-wįɣE


Lakota yuwį́ɣA ‘turn around, back’ EB:656a , yuwį́žA ‘bend (e.g., wire)’ EJ

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-wį́xe

Chiwere luwį́xeną ‘turn’ GM

Hoocąk wawį́x ‘hour’ , wawįx

Proto-Dhegiha *hkówįɣe

Omaha-Ponca kkówįɣe ‘wandering about’

Kanza/Kaw bakkómįɣe ‘turn something, spin’ RR

Osage baḳúwiⁿxe , †pahkówįɣe ‘turn something by pushing’ LF:22a

Quapaw tákkowįɣáɣa ‘turn in circles by fire’ JOD

General comment

The various combinations of morphemes found under ‘turn’, ‘twist’ suggest a compound root in DH. The elements seem most frequently to be *hko and *wį, or both, with the extension *Se, and they seem to be relatively independent. Cf. ‘twist (1)’ for more of the same. In addition, this root is peculiar and probably recent in several languages in that the w has not nasalized. There may be a Catawba cognate, -wąče ‘twist’ (Kanza/Kaw-235) although the sound correspondences are poorly understood at best.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources