beyond > other, across (1)

particle physical_spatial


Proto-Siouan *ko•

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ko•

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ko•-

Chiwere go^ó , †goʔó ‘for a while; a while ago’ JGT:1141 , gó- , †goʔó ‘yonder; yon; there’ JGT:1146 , gó- in: gósi/ góshi/ gósida , †goʔó ‘that (obj.) over there’ JGT:1145 , gó- , †goʔó ‘over there’ JGT:1148 , gó- in: gósange/ góshange , †goʔó , gó- , †goʔó , gó- in: gósida/ góshida , †goʔó

Hoocąk goo- in: goojá ‘over there’ KM:454 , goo- in: gooja

Proto-Dhegiha *ko•

Omaha-Ponca gu , †go ‘yonder; towards you’ JEK , †-gó- in: águdi ‘where (lit. where away)’ JEK , †gó- in: gú-a ‘farther off from a place; closer to another than to speaker; on that side’ [adverbial prefix] , †gó- in: gú-a-hi ‘beyond, on that side of the place’

Kanza/Kaw gó•- in: góda ‘yonder’ RR , go•- in: go•jí ‘far off, remote, long way off’ MR, RR , -gó- in: gagóha ‘over that way, over yonder’ RR , -gó- in: gagóje ‘then, at that time’ JOD, RR

Osage kó- in: góda , †kó- ‘ahead’ LF:53a , kó- in: gó-da thi-shoⁿ , †kó- ‘on the other side’ LF:53a , kó- in: gó-da toⁿ , †kó- ‘that person standing yonder’ [ritual term] LF:53a , gú-dsi , †kó- ‘in times past; a long time ago (primitive)’ LF:56b

Quapaw kói ‘there’ [dem] RR , kóike ‘those remote pl/st/vi/an’ [dem] RR , kóikhe ‘that remote sg/ly/vi/an or in’ RR



Biloxi kó- in: kówa , †kó- ‘in that direction, to that place’ [probably a locative adverb, meaning in that direction, to that place, being the correlative]

Ofo -khó- in: akho´tcaⁿ ~ akho´tcạ , †-khó- ‘out, outside’ D&S:319


Catawba -ko in: atkαni•réko , †-ko ‘long while ago’ KS:150 , -kó in: utkα´nerekó , †-kó ‘long while ago’ KS:150

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources