bend (6)

verb physical_contact_manipulation


Proto-Siouan *kšé•kE


Mandan ksékoʔš ‘it’s crooked’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *kšé•kE


Hoocąk kšeekšék ‘be crooked’ KM:1907 , kšeekšek

General comment

Lakota/Dakota kšáka ‘bent up, decrepit’ has the wrong vocalism to fit here unequivocally, although it seems clear that the form is derivationally related somehow. Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *ke(•)či ‘bend’ suggests that all of the Siouan terms for ‘bend, crooked’, etc. with root-initial probably possessed the Proto-Siouan initial CVC sequence *keš-. This would account for the accentual pattern in the daughter languages also.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources