bend (3)

verb physical_contact_manipulation


Proto-Siouan *š(V)kópE RR

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *š(V)kupE

Crow šikúpi ‘curved, bent’ RGG:98 , -xkúpa, ala- ‘bend in a stream’ RG, GG:8 , xakúpa ‘ravine’ RG, GG:60, RGG:19

Hidatsa cákupi ‘curved’ [striking prefix] J , šákupi ‘crooked, curved, hook-shaped’ [ara] J , xákupi ‘deep, concave (bowl, hole)’ [< xk] J , -ckupE, na- ‘sit on and bend, fold, flex’ [< xk; striking prefix] J , -ckupE, nú- ‘bend’ [< xk] J , -ckupE, pá- ‘fold, bend; fold up, roll up’ J , -ckúpE, ara- ‘stand on and bend’ J , -hkupE, ara- ‘bend it with feet’ J , -hkupE, ná- ‘dented, caved in, emaciated’ J , -hkupE, pá- ‘bend it in by hand’ J

Pre-Mandan *:skop-

Mandan skópoʔš ‘it’s bent over, rounded, crooked’ H:213 , -skopoʔš, ká- ‘he bends it by striking’ H:213 , -skopoʔš, rú- ‘he bends it’ H:214

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *škópE

Proto-Dakota *škópa

Lakota škópA ‘crooked, warped’ also = person who’s never serious’ EJ , -škópa, yu- ‘bend, to make crooked or twisting’ EB:652a, EJ , -škopa, ayá- ‘make crooked or twisted by biting on’ EB:103a, EJ , -škópa, ka- ‘make crooked or twisted by striking, but not to curve; to dent by hitting; result is a bend or dent, but object stays straight’ EB:291a, EJ , -škópa, na- ‘twist with the foot; to twist or become crooked of itself’ EB:359a, EJ , -škopa, wapá- ‘make twist or become warped; make twist or become warped with the palm, or by pushing’ EB:547a, EJ , -škókpa, yu- ‘hollow out e.g. a trough’ EB:652a, EJ , -škókpa, ka- ‘hollow out, make concave, cut out as a trough; make a pit’ EB:291a, EJ , -škókpa, na- ‘indent, make a hollow place with the foot’ EJ , -škókpa, pa- ‘make a cavity or ditch by pressure with the hands, or by sitting’ EB:434b, EJ , -škókpa, ya- ‘bite out and make concave’ EB:628a, EJ

Dakota yuṡkopa , †yuškópa ‘warp’ WM:256b


Chiwere škówe ‘deep, furry, thick (of hair)’ JDH

Proto-Dhegiha *škópe

Omaha-Ponca shkube , †škóbe MAS:56

Kanza/Kaw škówe ‘deep’ RR

Osage shkúbe , †škópe ‘deep’ LF:132a

General comment

The DH cognates are somewhat different semantically, but the phonology matches exactly. Crow/Hidatsa šákupi/xákupi provides a link between the two meanings. Chiwere is even more revealing. Crow/Hidatsa shows a vowel between the sibilant and k which may be the reflex of a Proto-Siouan vowel. Words beginning with SC clusters in Siouan behave accentually as though there were an intervening vowel. There are numerous instances. We have reconstructed Pre-Mandan :skop- on the basis of the accentual pattern in Hollow’s forms: since Mandan prelengthening is typically the product of vowel loss, this also argues for a syncopated vowel. Lakota škokpa is from škop+ka. Vowel syncope after prefixes in cases like this is regular in Hidatsa.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources