noun plant_part




Proto-Dakota *omnį́ča

Lakota omníča RTC

Dakota omníca , †omníča ‘beans’ SRR:374b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ų•nį́ke

Chiwere ųñį́ŋe ‘bean’ RR , ų́ŋe ‘beans’

Otoe ųñį́•ñe ‘bean(s) dimin.’ JDH , bean(s) ‘slow’ JDH , ųñį́yįñe

Hoocąk hųųnį́k KM:1618 , huunįk

Proto-Dhegiha *hǫbrį́ke

Omaha-Ponca hįbðį́ge ‘beans’ RTC

Kanza/Kaw hǫblį́ge ‘beans’ RR , hǫblį́ ‘beans’ RR

Osage hǫbrį́ke ‘beans’ RR

Quapaw hǫbnį́ke ‘beans’ RR



Ofo ạñkonakí, ạñkunạki , †ąkunaki ‘beans’ D&S:323a

General comment

Cf. Uto-Aztecan forms in Miller PUA#29 “Saponi muutii; HP móri; Pg muuñ; Tr muní; Vr muʔuní, muuní; My muúni; Yq muúni; Cr muhume; Hch muumee. These forms probably do not reflect a UA prototype, but rather an early borrowing.” Miller (personal communication) also points out that Yuman also has numerous look-alikes for this set. One such is Yavapai merik (Kendall, Martha B., Selected Problems in Yavapai Syntax, 80). These terms are most likely borrowings in Siouan also, since beans are not attested archaeologically in the upper midwest until about A.D. 1000, long after the breakup even of MVS. Although these terms look very much alike, the set contains numerous irregularities that tend to confirm diffusion. The prototype for borrowing seems to have been analyzed by Siouan speakers as containing at least three elements: (h)ų•- present without the second element in one of the Chiwere forms and in Ofo, wrį present in most of the remaining forms, and -ke a common noun forming suffix present in most but not all forms. Mandan and Dakota have #o-, other languages show ų. The word appears to have gone from Mandan to Dakota.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources