noun time_phase


Proto-Siouan *wahtą́•(-re) RR

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *watá•

Crow basáa ‘autumn’ RG, GG:28, RGG:37

Hidatsa watá• ‘autumn’ J , matá•

Pre-Mandan *ptą•re

Mandan ptą́ ~ ptą́re , †ptą•re ‘autumn’ H:156 , ptą́roʔš , †ptą•- ‘it’s autumn’ H:156

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ptą́•-

Proto-Dakota *ptą́-

Lakota ptąyétu RTC

Dakota ptaŋyetu , †ptąyétu ‘autumn’ WM:11b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *thą́•nį

Chiwere čañi ‘winter’ LWR , thą́•ñį RR

Hoocąk čaanį́ KM:130 , caanį, cąąnį

Proto-Dhegiha *htą́•

Omaha-Ponca ttą• gáxðą ‘fall’ RR

Kanza/Kaw ttą́dą ‘mid winter’ RR

Osage ṭoⁿ , †htą ‘Fall of the year’ LF:155b

Quapaw pádettą ‘winter’ MS



Tutelo tāñyi, tä’i , †tą•yi H

General comment

Reconstruction of Proto-Siouan aspiration in this root is conjectural. The problem is that most of the languages outside of MVS have either lost historical aspiration (Crow, Hidatsa, Mandan) or have been transcribed by earlier researchers in such a way that aspiration is hard to detect (Biloxi, Tutelo). In MVS the prefix, *wa-, collapses with the root leaving the cluster *pt, whose outcome in Chiwere/Hoocąk and DH is an aspirated *ht or its modern reflex, tt, th, čh. The stop should be aspirated by its position in the Proto-Siouan accented syllable, but there are a few exceptions to this rule.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources