all, intact



Proto-Siouan [old reconstruction only]

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *za•nį́

Proto-Dakota *zanį́

Lakota ząní ‘well, not sick’ RTC

Dakota zaní ‘well’ WM:258b


Chiwere ðañį LWR

Proto-Dhegiha *za•nį́

Omaha-Ponca zanį́ ‘all’ JOD

Kanza/Kaw za•nį́ ‘all’ RR

Osage çaní , †zaní ‘all’ LF:29b

Quapaw zanį́, izanį́ ‘all’ RR

General comment

We suspect an MVS innovation here. Cf. MVS -za ‘collective’. If this root is derived from the (earlier) collective suffix, it would better explain how *s could have become z here. It would have been posttonic. Lakota has evidently reinterpreted -ni as the negative suffix, leading to yazą́ ‘sick’. Quapaw i- is not accounted for so far. It does not fit semantically with either instrumental, locative or possessive i-, but its presence might account for the long a• by the second syllable lengthening rule.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources