towards (1)

particle physical_spatial


Proto-Siouan *-kta•

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *hta•

Crow kussaá ‘towards’ RG , -ssaá ‘towards’ RG

Hidatsa -hta• in: Xhta• ‘towards X’ [plural íroʔhta] J , -hta• in: akuhta• ‘the other way’ J , -htá in: hirihtá ‘this way’ H&V , -hta in: í•hta ‘towards him’ J , -hta in: íahta ‘towards that place’ J , -hta• in: kuhta• ‘that way, in that direction’ J , -hta• in: o•khíhta• ‘the other way, that way, otherwards’ J , -hta• in: ro•táhta• ‘this way, hither’ J , no•táhta• ‘towards’ J , -hta• in: šeʔehta• ‘toward that’ J , -hta- in: šeʔehtaha• ‘whither?’ J , -hta• in: tóhta• ‘any way, carelessly’ J , -hta•- in: to•hta•ruš

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-kta


Lakota -ktá in: ektá ‘at, to, into’ EB:141 , -ktá- in: ektákiya ‘to, towards’ EB:141 , -ktá- in: ektána ‘there behind, after’ EB:142

Proto-Dhegiha *-hta

Omaha-Ponca -ttá- in: ettáthą ‘from there’ [tti- house] JEK , -tta in: étta ‘thither’ JEK , -tta in: ttiatta ‘to, towards the tent’ JEK

Kanza/Kaw -tta in: étta ‘there, towards that place (?)’ MR, RR , -tta- in: éttaha ‘there, over there, thither’ MR, RR , -tta in: hašítta ‘behind, in the rear’ RR , -tta in: gáyįgetta ‘over there, to that place’ RR , -tta- in: gójettaha ‘far off, remote in time or space’ JOD, RR

Osage ṭa , †hta ‘in that direction’ [Term used in ceremonial ritual] LF:135a , ṭa ha , †hta ‘toward’ LF:137a , -ṭa in: e-ṭa ú-ga-xthe , †-hta ‘facing in that direction’ LF:41b , -ṭa- in: gá-ṭa-toⁿ , †-hta ‘from that direction’ LF:47 , -ṭa in: ga-xá-ṭa , †-hta ‘at a distance away’ LF:48b , á-ṭa , †áhta ‘beyond’ LF:14b

Quapaw étta ttétta ídišą ‘direction, around in that’ RR

General comment

Lakota preserves the original cluster, the source of Hidatsa preaspiration and DH ht. There has almost certainly been some contamination of ‘towards’ *hta and ‘side, other’ *ta. Compare †tka †tki

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources