I (agt.) on You (pat.) contraction

pronoun n/a


Proto-Siouan *wa + *yi

Pre-Mandan *wrį- < **warį-

Mandan wįrį- ‘1st active on 2nd patient’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley w + yi < *wa + *yi

Proto-Dakota (w+)yi < *wa + *yi

Lakota čhi- ‘1st active on 2nd patient’ RTC

Dakota čhi-


Hoocąk nįį- [nį- in Lipkind-27] , nį-

Proto-Dhegiha *wi- RR

Omaha-Ponca wi-

Kanza/Kaw wi-

Osage wi-

Quapaw wi-

Proto-Southeastern *wa + *yi


Biloxi nyi- [< nk + yi] D&S:1846

Ofo ači-´ [<*wa + *yi]


Tutelo máyi- JOD

General comment

The contracted form often co-occurs with an (analogical) more regular 1st sg. actor prefix. So far, contraction appears to be an MVS phenomenon.

OVS either never contracted these pronoun prefixes or has restored them analogically throughout.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources