2nd singular actor prefix

pronoun n/a

Proto-Siouan-Catawba *ya(•), *ayá (?)

Proto-Siouan *ya•-, *ya-, < *aya- (?)

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *rá- ~ *ar-

Crow dáa-/__(la)k ‘force’ [dáa-/__(la)k] , dá-/pa- ‘push’ [dáa-, d-/__VV, da/ __hči, al-/__V(loc.), d-/__a(l)a] , dáa-, d-/__VV, da/ __hči, al-/__V(loc.), d-/__a(l)a ‘foot’ [da-/_la(a); Harmonic -V- reinserted? v. also and motion verbs - very irregular] , da- ‘eat (mouth)’ [di-/_lu-; Harmonic -V- reinserted? v. also and motion verbs - very irregular] , di- ‘eat (hand)’

Hidatsa ra•- [__rka-] J , na•- [ar-/__a-(<loc. i,a),o- (loc.)] J , ar-/__a-, o- [__motion verb] J , rara- [__ha-,rá-,ʔa-(<ara), rú-,elsewhere] J , nara- , ra- , na-


Mandan ra- ‘2nd person active’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ra•-


Dakota ya

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ra•- ~ *ra-

Chiwere ra•- ~ ra- RR

Hoocąk ra- [R=/r~n/ (Marten-7), but /n/ only before a nasal vowel] WL:22, AS:104 , ra- , ra , ra-

Proto-Dhegiha *ra- RR

Omaha-Ponca ða-

Kanza/Kaw ya- RR

Osage ða- RR

Quapaw da- RR

Proto-Southeastern *ya- ~ *ay-


Biloxi ya- , ay-/__á-

Ofo ča- , ača-


Tutelo ya-, ye- H


Catawba ya-, yi- [with prefixing verbs] FS

General comment

There is consensus that the glide here was Proto-Siouan *y rather than *r, i.e., Proto-Siouan *ya(•)-, with *ra- developing only in MVS. The Dakota ‘I-you’ portmanteau contracts to a *y product, (čhi-), not an *r product (*bli). So there are relics of *y, even in MVS. Additionally, the obstruentized allomorphs, q.v., are all palatals also. Note the parallel metatheses in Biloxi and Crow/Hidatsa by which *ya > *ay / __-V. In Crow/Hidatsa, both first and second person pronouns metathesize before the locative prefixes. This suggests a (synchronic?) reanalysis of an older infixing formation. However, if Proto-Siouan or Proto-Siouan-Catawba were *ayá, the otherwise aberrant second person stress and length are explained.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources