1st singular disjunctive

pronoun n/a


Proto-Siouan *wí•-*ʔe• ~ *wį́•-*ʔe•

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *wi•re

Crow biiléen, bíilaa RG , bíh

Hidatsa wi•ra , mi•ra

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *wi-ʔe•


Lakota mįyé


Chiwere mí^e , †mį́ʔe ‘I’ JGT:167

Proto-Dhegiha *wi-e

Omaha-Ponca wi

Kanza/Kaw wíe RR

Quapaw wíe RR



Ofo mī´ⁿti , †mį́•ti JSS


Tutelo mim H

General comment

Cf. analogous 2sg. form. Here, *ʔe• is presumably the general demonstrative. Nasalization appears to be lacking in DH, and no explanation for its absence is presently available. Ofo shows a form with analogically restored initial m-, ordinarily lost in both Ofo and Biloxi. Otherwise, Ofo is internally reconstructible to *wį-re, where r would normally be epenthetic following the loss of an earlier ʔ.

Perhaps the sibilant Lakota mįš and Tutelo misą́i ‘emphatic’ forms belong together in a set related to this one, although if the sibilant goes back to it should have become č in Tutelo. There are other instances of Tutelo scorresponding to š in MVS though--although some of them are clearly diffused forms like ‘nine’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources