1st singular actor prefix (underlying)

pronoun n/a


Proto-Siouan *wa-

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *wa

Crow ba-, baa- [b-/_VV or - (by foot); ba-/__ hči, __ (by pushing or force); aw-/__Vą] RG

Hidatsa wa- , ma-


Mandan wa- ‘1st person actor’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *wa-

Proto-Dakota *wa-

Lakota wa-

Dakota wa-

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ha-

Chiwere ha- RR

Hoocąk ha- KM, WL:22, AS:104 , ha-

Proto-Dhegiha *a-

Omaha-Ponca a-

Kanza/Kaw a-

Osage a-

Quapaw a-

Proto-Southeastern *wa-



Ofo ba-


Tutelo wa-

General comment

wa- may > mą- if in a nasalizing context. This can yield homophony with the patient pronoun prefix. There are syncopating allomorphs of considerable age that are used with verb stems that begin with *r-, *h-, *w-, *ʔ, or *p-, *t-, *k-. These last three types may interact with “Carter’s Law”, which should generally aspirate same. See separate entries for these allomorphs. Dhegiha generally shares the Omaha rule that inserts a w if person marking follows locative o- and a ð following instrumental i-. Equivalents for Omaha-Ponca ð vary locally in the other dialects. In addition, Omaha-Ponca *a-ki- > e. Ofo initial labial resonants were normally lost, and the b here is unexplained. This Siouan pronominal prefix is interesting because it is not cognate with the Catawba or YU analog, which have an even more complex, and presumably ancient, allomorphy. Of the Siouan pronominal prefixes, only second person and 1st. excl. are clearly cognate with Catawba. The Proto-Siouan-Catawba 1s prefix appears to have been *nV- or *dV-, assuming that the more opaque Catawba allomorphy is older. These latter match Yuchi 1Act. Prefixes.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources