1st plural (exclusive?)

pronoun n/a

Proto-Siouan-Catawba *rų



Mandan rų-, r-V ‘1st inclusive’ RTC



Tutelo mīwa-nu-htākan , †nų- ‘we are Indians’


Catawba -nǫ-, -nų-, do- ‘1 pl. obj.’ PV:4, KS

General comment

Mandan and Catawba all have both oral and nasal allomorphs; Tutelo may have, but if so, it is unattested. The Catawba pronominal also forms the basis for independent 1pl pronouns (Voorhis, Rudes PC). The Tutelo form contrasts in this VP with another form in which -mi- replaces -nu- with an identical translation. The verb ‘to be a man/Indian’ is unique in its conjugation, and this Tutelo pronominal is a hapax legomenon.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources