1st inclusive possessor, alienable

pronoun n/a




Proto-Dakota *ųk-í-

Lakota ųkí- alienable

Dakota ųkí- alienable


Chiwere hį•- [alienable]

Proto-Dhegiha *ǫkó- alienable RR

Omaha-Ponca ągó- [alienable]

Kanza/Kaw ągó-, ǫgó- [alienable] RR

Quapaw ǫkó- [alienable] JOD

Proto-Southeastern *wąk- (?)


Biloxi iñktạ-tú, alienable , †įktatú ‘our, ours’ D&S:239a

Ofo ǫ- , †ą-


Tutelo mąk- ? H

General comment

There is no reconstructible 1st inclusive inalienable affix. This appears to be possible evidence that the category itself (i.e. ‘inclusive’)is innovated since the Proto-Siouan period and never penetrated the bound morphological core completely. Without vowel length in MRS and Tutelo being marked, it is uncertain over all. Biloxi į is unexplained. The Chiwere form may be derived from wą- (cf. the related pronominals, above, and also ‘crayfish’). Crow and Hidatsa use 1st singular possessive with plural affix. Details of Ofo and Tutelo usage are unknown.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources