1st inclusive patient prefix

pronoun n/a



Proto-Mississipi-Valley *wa- -wa

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *(wa-) -wa

Chiwere wa•wá- RR

Hoocąk -(h)a- [-(h)a- portion of †wą•g- -ha] AEM, AS, WL , -(h)a-

Proto-Dhegiha *wa- -a RR

Omaha-Ponca wa- -a

Kanza/Kaw wa- [as OP?]

Osage wa-

Quapaw wa- [as OP?]



Tutelo wai-, wae-, mai-, mae- , †waʔe ‘us, we’ H

General comment

DH/Chiwere share an isogloss, but the pattern is defective elsewhere. Crow may be cognate, but there seems to be no Hidatsa parallel; Tutelo may be cognate or may have diffused from DH. Note that both the Crow and the Tutelo forms suggest an extension with the form *ʔe• or *(r)e• This is likely demonstrative*ʔe• and it recurs with the disjunctive form of this pronominal. The Chiwere bipartite morpheme is attested as a unit by RR but as discontinuous by Whitman. It is probably discontinuous only with certain other prefixes. The Omaha-Ponca bipartite form is found with locatives. (Discontinuous: wa- gi-/ṭ-/i- -a; a-wa- when there is a preverbal element.) Dakota uses ųk-. Hoocąk wą•ga may be a composite of forms partly analogous to the discontinuous Omaha-Ponca wa- -wa grafted to *wą•k-, i.e., *wa•k-wa > *wą•g-ha > wą•ga.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources