this, here, now (1)

particle n/a


Proto-Siouan *hi


Crow hilaá ‘just now’ [progression toward goal] GG:65 , hilaakée ‘now’ GG:65 , hileelíak ‘this’ GG:65 , hinné ‘these’ GG:65 , hileén ‘here; there; thither; these; hither’ GG:65 , hir"é, hir"én, hiré, hirém ‘off there, this way’ L:101 , hiré•kyo ‘at the same time, meanwhile’ L:101 , hilíko ‘like this, in this way’ GG:66 , hilía ‘here’ GG:63 , hilihtáa ‘thus; this kind; like’ GG:65 , hiría(te), hiríəte ‘just so far’ , hiría’kakaʻ•ta ‘this way, in this way’ L:102 , hiríse, hiríce ‘here they are’ L:102 , hiró•k ‘nearly’ L:101 , hí•ru L:102

Hidatsa hi- in: hicki ‘it must be’ J , hi- in: hihé ‘now’ H&V , hi- in: hirá ‘next time’ H&V , hi- in: hirá•ruk ‘next time’ H&V , hi- in: hirí ‘this; subject marker; now’ J , hi- in: hiríhka ‘this size’ J , hi- in: hirihkarúk ‘about this time’ H&V , hi- in: hirihtá ‘this way’ H&V , hi- in: hirikha• ‘by this time’ J , hi- in: hiró•še• ‘by way of here’ J , hi- in: hiró•ha• ‘around here’ J , hi- in: hiró•ha•k ‘motion from here’ J , hi- in: hiró• ‘here, at this place’ J , hi- in: hi•ruk ‘when, by the time’ J , hi- in: hiruká ‘on this side’ J , hi- in: hiruš•a• ‘this one’ J , hi- in: hiša ‘like, similar to, kind of’ J


Mandan -hi- in: hą́hik ‘time, occasion’ H:65

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-hi


Lakota -hi in: iyóhi ‘each, every one’ EB:256 , -hi- in: iyóhila ‘each one’ EB:256 , -hi- |and| -hi in: otóiyohihi ‘some of each, perhaps’ EB:409

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *hi

Chiwere hi- ‘here and there; become’ JGT:2044 , hi- in: jirára/ hirára

Hoocąk hi- in: higų ‘any, any whatever’ KM:856 , hi- in: higų ‘right now, right away’ KM:857 , hi- in: higų́ąną ‘there’ KM:892 , hi- in: higųąną ‘to or from that extent or point in time or space’ KM:981 , hi- in: hijá ‘enough’ KM:951 , hi- in: hija ‘some, a portion of sth.’ KM:1073 , hi- in: hipá ‘also’ KM:1077 , hi- in: hipa , hi- in: hiną́ , hi- in: hiną , hi- in: hisgé , hi- in: hisge , hi- in: hišgé , hi- in: hišge

Proto-Dhegiha *-hi

Omaha-Ponca -hi in: gá-hi ‘in that place’ , -hi in: shé-hi , †šéhi ‘in that place’ [= DA hé-chi] , -hi in: dhé-hi , †ðéhi ‘in this place’ [= DA de-chi]

Quapaw -hi in: hą́thąhi ‘then, at length’


Catawba hi- in: de hira ‘that’s me’ KS:224 , hi- in: yé hire ‘that man’ KS:224 , hi- ‘who’s that’ KS:249 , hi- in: təwε̨´ hinɛ ‘who (relative)’ KS:249 , hi- ‘that tree over yonder’ KS:224 , -hi- in: yóp ihisē ‘he standing over yonder’ KS:256 , hi- in: hisare ‘up yonder’ KS:256 , -hí in: datkuhí ‘a long time ago’ KS:150 , -hi- ‘many, more’ KS:153 , -hi- in: akę•hire , -hi- , -hi- in: mähire

General comment

It is not unusual in Siouan languages for a single word or morpheme to be translated ‘this, here, now’. Thus the DH locative suffixes may be cognate with the more northerly demonstratives.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources