verb perceptual


Proto-Siouan *šó•kE


Hidatsa šó•ki ‘dull edged’ J

Pre-Mandan *suʔk-

Mandan súʔkoʔš ‘it’s dull, not sharp’ RTC , sų́koʔš ‘it’s dull’ H:221

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *šó•ka

Proto-Dakota *šóka

Lakota šóka ‘thick’ RTC , -šóka, na- ‘thicken, swell, as a piece of wood in water; to get a thick skin on one’s feet from walking’ EB:359 , -šóka, wo- ‘puffed out, enlarged, ending in a knob’ EB:609

Dakota śoka , †šóka ‘thick, of solids’ SRR:447a

Stoney sóga ‘thick’ PAS:142

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *šó•ka

Chiwere só•ga, sogá ‘thick’ RR

Hoocąk šoogá ‘be thick’ KM:2980 , šooga ‘cut thick’ KM:2028 , -šóga, mąą- , mąąšoga

Proto-Dhegiha *šoká

Omaha-Ponca šogá ‘thick’ RR

Kanza/Kaw šóga, šogá- ‘thick’ RR

Osage shogá , †šoká ‘thick’ LF:132b

Quapaw šoká ‘thick’ JOD



Biloxi tcâki´ , †čakí ‘thick’ D&S:261b

General comment

It appears we may have a little phonosymbolism here in the vocalism. We may also have mixed sets. Swanton describes “â” (as in Biloxi) as “like the o in stop” (DS-4). Haas (1968) recorded Biloxi o often as very open, so the Biloxi form cited here could have either an o or an a.

The vowel length and accentual pattern suggest that this lexeme normally had an initial syllable or prefix (as most stative verbs). Crow shúhka ‘wide (strip)’ GG-56 is comparable to Hidatsa cuhka ‘flat, bottomland’, forms which do not belong in this set. The final vowel here is problematic. MVS shows non-ablauting a, but Biloxi and Hidatsa suggest Proto-Siouan *i or possibly *E. We cannot be certain which groups have reanalyzed the form.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources