that (1)

pronoun n/a


Proto-Siouan *ka•


Crow kaka ‘again (repetition)’ GG:63 , káma, kámo ‘ago’ L:138 , kan, kar ‘then; already’ L:138 , kan, kam, kar ‘when; as’

Hidatsa ka• ‘to be there’ J


Mandan ká- in: kárį ‘and’ H:102

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ka•


Lakota ka ‘there, that yonder’ [it is used when the thing spoken of is not quite close, when we use le] EB:269 , kaná ‘the plural’ [of ka ?] EB:269 , ká- in: káe ‘that is he’ [this word is used when one is pointing at the same time, as in saying: He emph.] EB:271 , ka- in: kahą́ ‘to this, thus far’ EB:273 , ka- in: kahą́l ‘to this, at this, thus far’ EB:273 , ka- in: kahą́tu ‘to that, so far, so long’ EB:280 , ká- in: kákhi ‘there, yonder’ EB:293 , ká- in: kátkiya ‘that way, over yonder (pointing) somewhere’

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ka•

Chiwere ga- ‘that one over there’ JGT:18 , ga- in: ga^igi ‘that (one) over there’ DOR, JGT:905 , gá/ gá^e/ ká ‘at’ JGT:906, LWR , gá- ‘at last; that’s the last’ JGT:913 , gá- in: gáda/ káta ‘just then; there; in that place’ JGT:915 , ga- ‘at that time’ JGT:924 , ga- in: gahédan ‘now; all right; enough’ , ga- ‘that; those’ JGT:928 , ga- in: gída/ ga ída , gá- , gá- in: gáreda , ga- , ga- in: gasún/ gashún/ gasón , gá- , gá- in: gástan

Hoocąk ga- in: ga’a ‘that (near him)’ KM:305 , ga- in: ga’a ‘this way’ KM:309 , gaa- in: gaagų́ , ga- in: gaagų, gaigų

Proto-Dhegiha *ka•

Omaha-Ponca ga ‘yon, that (out of sight)’ JEK

Kanza/Kaw ga ‘that (unseen)’ JOD , ga ‘that’ MR, RR , gá•

Osage ga , †ka ‘thus, him, that’ LF:42a

Quapaw ka ‘that not visible’ RR



Biloxi ka in: ka , †ka ‘what, something, somewhat’ D&S:203b , ka- |and| -ká in: kaká , †ka ‘what sort or kind?’ , ká- in: káta , †ka ‘whose?’ D&S:204b , ká- in: káwa , †ka ‘what? Who?’ D&S:204a


Catawba †kat ‘now’ KS:168 , kát , †ká- ‘indeed’ KS:168 , káte’ , †ká- ‘indeed’ KS:168 , yę́•caʔ kərɛ´ , †kə- ‘that boy there’ KS:225 , kəre , †kə- ‘these, this’ KS:225

General comment

The Catawba entries appear to be quite flexible morphotactically and are listed with both the prefixed and suffixed Siouan forms which are best considered distinct morphemes.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources