Proto-Siouan *htó•ska


Hidatsa tó•ška ‘woodpecker’ J


Mandan tóška ‘woodpecker’ H:255

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *htó•ska

Proto-Dakota *thoskála

Lakota thoskála ‘downy Woodpecker, red spot on head’ EB:500b

Dakota †toskádą ‘the common woodpecker’ SRR:478b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *thó•ske

Chiwere thóhglégleðe ‘blue-speckled all over’ GM , čhóhglégleðe GM

Hoocąk čoosgé ‘blue jay, tattletail’ KM:265 , coosge ‘red headed woodpecker’ KM:266 , čoosge pasúč , coosge paašuc ~ coosgepašuc

Proto-Dhegiha *htóska

Omaha-Ponca †ttóska F&LF:105

Osage ṭúçka , †htóska ‘woodpecker, sapsucker’ LF:165b

General comment

The Kanza/Kaw form, ttoį́ska(hįga) ‘type of sparrow’, has been reanalysed or is simply not cognate. The Dorsey entry reads “of the woodpecker family”.

The Hidatsa form has š where a reflex of *s would have been expected. We propose that Hidatsa has borrowed from Mandan, hence the reconstruction with *s.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources