surround, head off, intercept

verb physical_spatial


Proto-Siouan *(a-)ąSE

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *axa

Crow áaxaa ‘around’ GG:3

Hidatsa íʔaxa ‘surround’ J

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *(a-)nąsE

Proto-Dakota *nąsá

Lakota nąsá ‘surround and kill, hunt buffalo’

Dakota nasá ‘hunt buffalo, surround and kill’ SRR:334a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ánąse

Chiwere nathé , †nąθé ‘close’ JGT:48 , anáthe, nanthé , †aną́θe ‘close, impede’ JGT:48

Hoocąk hanąsé ‘shut off from doing sth.; lock in; cover’ KM:630 , hanąse ‘fasten’ WL:16.6 , hasá , hasa

Proto-Dhegiha *ánąse

Omaha-Ponca †ánase ‘obstruct’

Kanza/Kaw ánąsa ‘cut off, surround’ RR

Osage ánoⁿçe , †ánąse ‘surround’ LF:13b

Quapaw ánase ‘intercept, head off’ JOD



Ofo oⁿ´sxa , †ą́sha ‘hunt for game’ D&S:328a

General comment

Ofo exhibits the x-grade, as does Proto-Crow-Hidatsa. Assuming cognacy of the Ofo and Proto-Crow-Hidatsa forms for the moment, the lack of initial *r before the vowel in Ofo/Proto-Crow-Hidatsa suggests that this is the older form and that MVS has inserted a glide between the locative prefix and stem that has been reanalyzed as a stem-initial consonant. All three fricative grades appear to exist in this set. Cf. ‘surround’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources