suck (2)



Proto-Siouan *ra-xópE


Hidatsa ráxupE ‘drink it all up’ J , náxupi

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-ɣópE

Proto-Dakota *-xépa ~ *-ɣópA

Lakota yaxépa ‘drink up’ RTC , yaɣópA ‘sip, suck up’ RTC, EJ

Dakota yaḣépa , †yaxépa ‘drink up’ SRR:605a , yaġópa , †yaɣópa ‘suck up’ SRR:603a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-ɣópe

Chiwere raghówe , †raɣówe ‘suck’ JGT:245

Hoocąk ɣóop ‘gift of healing’ KM:502 , ǧoop ‘cure by traditional means’ KM:563 , haɣop , haǧop

Proto-Dhegiha *raxó(-we)

Omaha-Ponca thaxu , †ðaxo ‘suck’ MAS:166

Kanza/Kaw yaxówe ‘make a tearing or sucking sound’ RR

Osage thaxúe , †ðaxówe ‘dragged with the teeth’ LF:143a

Quapaw daxówe ‘draw into the mouth’ JOD



Biloxi oxpá , †oxpá ‘eat up’ D&S:240b , yaⁿ´xkĭyóxpa , †oxpá ‘they drink up for me’

Ofo ạshópi , †əshópi ‘drink’ D&S:321b , utacĭ´pi , †utašípi ‘suck’ D&S:331b

General comment

Omaha-Ponca may show the unextended root, though all of DH is problematic because post-accentual *p is generally retained. Dakotan -e- is unexplained, though note the correlation of e with x and o with ɣ.

Lakota ɣ is not explained since x > ɣ only postonically. DH probably has ɣ, mistranscribed as x by most workers because, unlike the other pairs of fricatives, this one does not involve voicing. DH has a different root extension. Ofo seems to show the same two vowels that we find in Lakota.

s and š apparently do not contrast in Ofo, and both are reflexes of Proto-Siouan x.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources