stomach, paunch

noun physical_somatic_body_part


Proto-Siouan *a-į́•xe

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *í•xi

Crow íaxa ‘tripe’ GG:71, RGG:104

Hidatsa í•xi ‘tripe, paunch, first stomach of a ruminant’ J


Mandan é•xi ‘stomach’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *nį́•ɣa ~ nį́•xe

Proto-Dakota *niɣé

Lakota niɣé ‘stomach’ RTC

Dakota niġé , †niɣé SRR:340b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *nį́•xa

Chiwere nį́•xa ‘upper stomach’ RTC, RR, JDH

Hoocąk nįįxá KM:2359 , nįįxa

Proto-Dhegiha *nį́ɣa

Omaha-Ponca níxa RTC, RR

Kanza/Kaw nį́ɣa ‘animal’s stomach’ RR

Quapaw ttaníɣa ‘animal’s belly’ JOD



Biloxi yíxyaⁿ, ayíxi, ayíxiyaⁿ , †ayíxi ‘stomach, paunch’ D&S:293a

General comment

Another instance of initial n- in MVS that is wanting in MRS and OVS. The most likely analysis is that it represents the epenthetic glide that is inserted preaccentually between a prefix vowel and vowel-initial stem. If the prefix is the bound inalienable possessor prefix, i-, Dakota would have modern initial čh in place of n however. The prefix vowel was probably the a still reflected in Biloxi. Crow and Hidatsa evidently reflect the form without the a prefix or epenthetic glide. Crow ia is from i• before x. Mandan initial e• might reflect collapse of an earlier a-i; however, the Mandan final vowel is wrong and suggests a possible borrowing from a Crow or Hidatsa dialect. The final vowels vary widely throughout the set and cannot really be accounted for at all.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources