stink (2)

verb perceptual_olfactory


Proto-Siouan *(i)xu-


Mandan xų́•pe ‘stink’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *xo•wį

Proto-Dakota xųwį́

Lakota xųwį́ ~ xwį́ ‘stink, become putrid, as does meat’ RTC

Dakota xųwį́ ~ xwį́ ‘stink, become putrid, as a dead body’ SRR:168

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *xų́•wį

Chiwere xų́•mį ‘stink’ RR

Hoocąk xųųwį́ ‘have pungent odor or stink’ KM:3959 , xųųwį

Proto-Dhegiha xowį́

Omaha-Ponca xuíⁿ MAS:164

Osage xwíⁿ , †xwį́ ‘fetid, offensive smell’ LF:221b

Quapaw xowį́, xwį́ ‘stink’ JOD


Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *ixúhi

Biloxi xúhi, xyúhi, xuhí , †xúhi ‘omit a bad odor, stink’ D&S:197b

Ofo ĭshúhi , †išúhi ‘stink, smell bad’ D&S:324a


Catawba sų́wə ‘smell’ FGS:105 , sųwi•tcúwe ‘stinks much will’

General comment

This root seems clearly a product of symbolism, although it may also be partially inherited in some cases. There are too many w’s between nasal vowels for these to be cognates. The w’s should have all become m’s long ago in most of the languages represented here. We suspect that there is an inherited portion of the form that is related historically to the Catawba forms, but we would not propose a Proto-Siouan reconstruction because of the obvious intervention of sound symbolism.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources