stab (1)

verb physical_contact_impact


Proto-Siouan *yá•phe

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *-ráhpE

Crow aláhpi ‘stab, puncture’ GG:7

Hidatsa iráhpE ‘stab’ J

Pre-Mandan *rápe-

Mandan dápeʔš ‘he stabbed it’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *yá•phe


Lakota čha_phá ‘stab’ RTC

Sioux Valley čha_phá ‘stab’ PAS


Chiwere žá•we ‘stab’

Otoe yá•we ‘stab’ RR

Proto-Dhegiha *žáphe

Omaha-Ponca gi•žahe ‘stab’ RR , žahe ‘stab’ JOD

Kanza/Kaw žáphe ‘stab’ RR

Osage zhápshe , †žáphe ‘stab’ LF:222a



Biloxi pxwĕ´di , †pxuwédi ‘stab, punch, gore, thrust at’ D&S:246a

General comment

Cf. ‘stab (2)’. It is possible that these forms with postaspiration in DH were formed by syncope, i.e., from something like *pVxe or *pVhe in which we might expect to find the vowel still preserved in Crow and Hidatsa.

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa preaspiration is unexplained.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources