spread (1)

verb physical_contact_manipulation



Proto-Mississipi-Valley *wra-re

Proto-Dakota *wrárA

Lakota bláya ‘level, plane’ [šina wą yuha hinapa na - egnaka] RTC , bláya, yu- ‘open, spread out, unfold, make level’ EB:634 , bláblaya, yu- egnaka ‘lay out and spread e.g. a blanket’ EB:634 , bláya, ka- ‘make level by beating, e.g. a holy place; to open, as the eyes of a young dog for its first sight’ EB:270 , bláya, na- ‘make level or smooth with the foot; to become level, spread out’ EB:341 , bláya, pa- ‘spread out, e.g. dough; to make level; to iron e.g. clothes, to make smooth.’ EB:422 , bláya, wa- ‘make flat with a knife, to have off lumps etc.’ EB:511 , bláya, wo- ‘spread out by blowing or punching’ EB:595 , bláya, ya- ‘make level with the teeth’ EB:617

Dakota mdáya ‘level, plain’ SRR:312a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *prara

Chiwere brára ‘level, spread out’ JOD, JGT , gibrára ‘level’ JGT:175

Hoocąk párara ‘wide’ JOD , parara?

Proto-Dhegiha *brára

Omaha-Ponca b¢a¢a , †bðáða ‘wide’ JOD

Kanza/Kaw bláya ‘level’ RR , bláya, ba- ‘level out by pushing’ RR , bláya, ną- ‘spread out or level by treading on sth.’ RR , bláya, yü- ‘open out, unfold, pull open’ RR

Osage bthátha , †bráða ‘broad, wide’ LF:28a

Quapaw bdáda JOD

General comment

Comparison of this with the several forms meaning ‘spread’ strongly suggests that this term had vowel length.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources