son, third or younger

noun social_kin


Proto-Siouan *i-há•ka

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *(i-)(ki-) hake , *(ki-)há•ka


Lakota haké ‘fifth son, last child’ RTC

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *há•ka

Chiwere há•ga ‘3rd son’ [also hagáyįŋe] RR , hagáyįŋe ‘5th boy’ RR

Otoe ikháge ‘brother, of a sort’ RR

Hoocąk háaga, haagá ‘third son’ KM:515 , haaga

Proto-Dhegiha *kháka , *kháke

Omaha-Ponca khága ‘third son birthname’ JOD , khagé ‘4th son, birthname’ JOD , ikháge ‘friend’ RR

Kanza/Kaw khága ‘third son’ RR , khagé ppahą́le ‘1st khage’ ‘3rd son’ RR , kháhįŋa ‘5th son’ JOD, RR

Osage khážį ‘4th, 5th son’ [check gloss] RR , kháke ‘third son’ RR

Quapaw kháke ‘third son’ [check gloss] RR , khážį ‘4th, 5th son’ RR



Biloxi áka , †áka ‘youngest’ [cf. soⁿtkaka] D&S:170b , ákayaⁿ , †áka ‘her youngest brother’

General comment

The third, fourth, and fifth son terms, while equivalent in that they share the same root and postpose ‘little’, are not properly cognate. DH is derived from k(i) ‘ones own’, hake/a ‘birth name of one of several sons’ and žį(ka) ‘little’. Chiwere is likewise made up of haka and yįke ‘little’. Note that there are alternants hake and haka for this root. Semantics, distinct truncations and morph replacements make these parallel innovations. DH terms with final-syllable accent are vocative. Cf. ‘end, finish > last (1)

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources