skinny, thin

verb perceptual


Proto-Siouan *xaráhe

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *xaráxxi

Crow xaláxxi ‘skinny’ GG:60, RGG:98

Hidatsa xaráxxi ‘thin, skinny’ H&V

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *xra

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *xra

Chiwere xláñį ‘hunger’ GM

Hoocąk -xara ‘thin’ KM:3858 , -xara

Proto-Dhegiha *xra

Kanza/Kaw xlá ‘skinny’ RR

Osage xtha , †xlá ‘emaciate, loss of flesh, waste away’ LF:219b

Quapaw xdá ‘skinny’ ASG, RR



Biloxi snáhi , †snáhi ‘slim, slender’ D&S:256b

General comment

Biloxi shows a different fricative grade. Biloxi also provides evidence for final *h, which might explain the Crow -xx- < *-xhi (?). Then again, the inexplicable Proto-Crow-Hidatsa may simply be some archaic version of reduplication. If this term is like others with the Proto-Siouan shape *Sará-, the second a should be long, with evidence for the length retained in Crow and Hidatsa. Here Crow/Hidatsa have closed syllables which may have served to shorten the vowel. This would imply Proto-Siouan *xará•he.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources