sister (5) wSiYo

noun social_kin


Proto-Siouan *i-htą́•ke-aka

Pre-Mandan *tą•ka

Mandan kotą́•ka ‘her younger sister’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *i-htą́ka

Proto-Dakota *thąka

Lakota thąká ‘woman’s younger sister’ RTC

Dakota táŋka , †thą́ka ‘a woman’s younger sister’ SRR:457b

Assiniboine thąga [Sask.] PAS

Stoney thągá PAS:694


Hoocąk hičą́kara ‘her younger sister’ JWE , hicąk


Omaha-Ponca ittą́ga RR



Biloxi tañkáka, taⁿkákayaⁿ , †tąkáka ‘male’s younger sister’ D&S:272a

General comment

Here the root htą́ke of sister (2) mSiEl’ is extended to younger sisters, and the derived form is typically used by a female Ego. The nature of the derivation is best shown in Biloxi, which has a transparent compound: tąk-aka = ‘sister (2) mSiEl’ + ‘younger’. The second root áka is encountered in several other kinterms, where it always designates younger members of a category.

This scenario requires postulating haplology in MVS: -kaka > -ka.

Crow iso•ká ‘her younger sister’ (GG-94, DEC-23) Hidatsa itá•ku ‘her younger sister’ (J) do not fit phonologically with forms found elsewhere in the family. The pre-Crow form was *to•ka, pre-Hidatsa perhaps *tu•ka with rightward vowel exchange and length fixed as a syllable feature. Vowel exchange typically affects u, not o. In addition, only short o’s raise to u in Hidatsa. Thus it is difficult to be certain of the Proto-Crow-Hidatsa form.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources