shine (1)



Proto-Siouan *ré•xE

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *ré•xi , *ré•xe

Crow déaxi ‘clear, transparent, light in color’ RG, GG:43, RGG:85

Hidatsa reʔexi ~ re•xi ‘light in color, clear, off-white’ J , neʔexi ~ ne•xi


Mandan rex ‘glisten’ H:179 , wárex ‘glass’ H:179 , írexe ‘light’ H:180 , réxkak ‘light in color’ H:180 , rárex ‘to be hot’ H:179 , rárešoʔš ‘it’s hot (to touch)’ RTC



Lakota léɣa ‘glittering’ EB:323 , iléɣa ‘shine, glitter’ RTC , léga, ka- ‘to fan, perhaps; to make shine by striking’ EB:282 , léga, na- ‘make shine or sparkle, as in pushing up or kicking the fire with the foot; to sparkle, scintillate’ EB:350 , léxlega, na- ‘kick or punch up the fire with the foot’ EB:350 , léga, pa- ‘encourage during an intermission, as fighting between two other conflicts, or poking and stirring a fire. Thus, to thre’ EB:823 , léxlega, pa- ‘poke the fire’ EB:430

Dakota yéġa, iyéġa ‘shine, glitter’ SRR:620a


Chiwere ré•xe ‘kettle’ RR , réxe ‘kettle, bucket’ JDH

Hoocąk réex ‘bucket, pail’ KM:2601 , reex

Proto-Dhegiha *réɣe

Omaha-Ponca ðéɣe ‘kettle’

Quapaw déɣe ‘pot, kettle’ JOD , deɣé zi ‘brass’ JOD



Biloxi awodéx , †awodéx ‘sunshine’ D&S:287a

General comment

Lakota forms with l are irregular and presumably a secondary development.

Chiwere/Hoocąk and DH forms reflect confusion of ‘shine’ and ‘kettle’, q.v. Quapaw accentual patterns suggest that perhaps ‘kettle’ originally had a prefix which has vanished leaving accent on the initial syllable while ‘shine’ did not. Crow, Hidatsa and Mandan seem to confirm this pattern. In Quapaw *r and *R fall together as d, although in Dorsey’s notes *R is also found as t. Quapaw ‘brass’ may show the original accentual pattern of ‘shine’, if it is not due to compounding.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources