noun physical_somatic_body_part


Proto-Siouan *i-rą́-kpe

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *i-rą́kpe

Proto-Dakota *čhąkpé

Lakota čhąkpé ‘knee, tibia’ RTC

Dakota ćaŋkpé , †čhąkpé ‘the tibia’ SRR:89b

Yanktonai ćaŋkpé , †čhąkpé ‘the kneepan or the knees’ SRR:89b


Chiwere ną́gwe ‘shin’ GM

Proto-Dhegiha *ną́xpe

Omaha-Ponca noⁿxpéhi , †nąxpéhi ‘shin’ MAS:155

Kanza/Kaw náxpe ‘leg below knee’ JOD

Osage noⁿ´xpehi , †ną́xpehi ‘shin’ LF:118a



Biloxi yukpĕ´, yukpeyaⁿ´ , †-kpé ‘legs’ D&S:296a


Catawba ipke• ‘leg’ FS

General comment

Dakota -kp- and DH -xp- do not regularly correspond, and the DH forms cannot therefore be considered properly cognate. This term appears to be trimorphemic however. Prefixal *i- marks inherently possessed body parts and accounts for Dakota čh < *r, accent and vowel length. The prefix is generally lost throughout MVS, but can be reconstructed through comparison with other body part terms. *-rą́•- is not identified but is segmentable comparing the DH forms in which the last morpheme is non-cognate and the Biloxi form in which the middle morpheme is non-cognate. Catawba tends to confirm this analysis to the extent that Catawba can be said to confirm anything in Siouan.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources