verb perceptual


Proto-Siouan *xé•pE

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *xé•pi

Crow xé•pi ‘shallow’ GG:61, RGG:98

Hidatsa xé•pi ‘shallow (of water)’ J

Pre-Mandan *spi•-

Mandan psí•kaʔš RTC , it’s shallow

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *xépE

Proto-Dakota *-xepA

Lakota -xépa, ka- ‘bail out, throw out, as water with the hand or a cup, until it is all gone’ EB:274 , -xépa, ya- ‘drink up, to empty, e.g. water’ EB:620 , -xépa, yu- ‘empty a vessel by lading out’ EB:638

Dakota -xépa, ya- ‘drink up’ SRR:605a , -xépa, yu- ‘absorb, empty, exhaust, as a fluid, by lading out’ SRR:626a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ɣépe

Chiwere xéwe, ghéwe , †ɣéwe ‘shallow’ JGT:225 , xéwe , †ɣéwe ‘shallow, very shallow’ JDH

Hoocąk ɣéep ‘be shallow’ KM:485 , ǧeep ‘boil down’ KM:3885 , horaxép , horaxep

Proto-Dhegiha *xépe

Omaha-Ponca xébe ‘shallow’ MAS:154

Osage xébe , †xépe ‘shallow, not deep’ LF:218a



Biloxi xyépi , †xépi ‘shallow, dry (emptied of water)’ D&S:225b


Tutelo Mony shap , †šep ‘ford’ Byrd

General comment

Hoocąk and Chiwere ɣ is unexplained, but the active verb form has the expected x. Mandan shows the š-grade, rather than the expected x-grade; perhaps cf. Tutelo.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources