scrape > smooth, shave (2)

verb physical_contact_manipulation


Proto-Siouan *-kʔósE

Pre-Mandan *-koš-

Mandan -kóšoʔš, ka- ‘scrape, cut’ H:115

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *kʔózE

Proto-Dakota *-kʔozA

Lakota -kʔóza, ka- ‘make the ground bare and thus harden it, to make hard, to lea ve hard and bare as the wind does the ground, or by sweeping, etc.’ EB:281 , -kʔoza, oná- ‘trample on and make hard’ EB:396 , -kʔóza, pa- ‘rub and make smooth and hard’ EB:429 , -kʔóza, ya- ‘make smooth with the mouth; to eat all off smooth’ EB:623 , -kʔóza, yu- ‘make smooth and hard by taking off the grass or hair, etc.’ EB:643

Dakota yuḳóza , †yukʔóza ‘to make smooth and hard by taking off the grass’ SRR:632a


Hoocąk kʔóos ‘be concave (kettle, dome, inside of cave)’ [Vroot only] , k’oos

General comment

The absence of glottalization in Mandan is not predictable. The Hoocąk form is semantically questionable, and with so little to go on, this etymology is insecure at present. Proto-Siouan may have had a long vowel, but Hoocąk is the sole attesting language at present.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources