yes (1), to be so

particle social_communication


Proto-Siouan *ahą́•


Hidatsa ho ‘yes’ J


Mandan hų́• ‘yes’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *(a)hą•

Proto-Dakota *(o)hą́

Lakota hą́, ohą́ ‘yes’ RTC

Dakota hą, ho

Sioux Valley PAS


Chiwere hų́če [no aspiration] GM

Hoocąk hą́, hą́ą ‘female exclamation’ KM:776 , hą, hąą ‘male exclamation’ B&S:935 , éhą , ehą ? , áhą , ahą ?

Proto-Dhegiha *ąhą

Omaha-Ponca ą́hą ‘yes’ JOD

Kanza/Kaw ‘yes, female speech’ RR , ąhá RR

Osage oⁿ , †ą LF:121b

Quapaw , †hą [Cf. hą́ži ‘no, not so’ where -ži is ‘negative’] JOD, RR

Proto-Southeastern *ahą́


Biloxi aⁿ , †ą [female speaker] , aⁿháⁿ , †ąhą́ [male speaker] D&S:177a


Tutelo ahá, aháñ , †ahą́ H


Catawba hįbáʔ KS, MAS

General comment

These terms are interestingly similar, but it is hard to be sure what part of them is cognate and what part involves phonosymbolism. There seems to have been a Proto-Siouan male/female speech distinction that needs to be clarified and considered both here and among the postverbal modal particles.

Other languages

  • Tunica hon~ MRH.
Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources