possessive root



Proto-Siouan *hta(-we)

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *-ta

Crow PRO-š-N, PRO-s-N ‘alienable possession’ [vowel -a- surfaces in some irregular possessive forms] RG , PRO-š-N, PRO-s-N SSš/_C, s/_V: RG

Hidatsa PRO-ta•-N ‘alienable possession’ [1s wata-N; 2s rita-N; 3s ita]

Pre-Mandan ta- ‘alienable possession’

Mandan PRO-ta-N ‘alienable’ [1s pta-N; 2s rįta-N; 1du rųta-N] RTC , PRO-ta-N

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-hta

Proto-Dakota *tha(-wa)

Lakota PRO-tha-N RTC ‘alienable possession’ [1s mitha-; 1du ųkítha- RTC] , N PRO-thawa , PRO-tha-N ~ N PRO-tha:wa:

Stoney -tha ‘alienable possession’ PAS

Sioux Valley -tha ‘alienable possession’ PAS


Chiwere N PRO-tha ‘alienable possession’ RR , N PRO-tha: ~ -tháwe , †-tháwe [1s mįtháwe, mitáwe, mintáwe] JGT:188

Proto-Dhegiha *-hta

Omaha-Ponca N (PRO-)PRO-tta ‘alienable possession’ JEK

Kanza/Kaw -tta ‘alienable possession’ RR

Osage -hta ‘alienable possession’ RR

Quapaw -tta ‘alienable possession’ RR

Proto-Southeastern *-tha(-we)

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *-tha

Biloxi -ta, itá , †i-tá ‘have’ D&S:268a

Ofo N PRO-txa ~ PRO-txa-N ‘have, own, possess’ D&S:324b , txa, itxa


Tutelo kitawi, kitowe, kitom- /_p , †ki-ta-we ‘alienable possession’

General comment

Tutelo, Lakota, and Chiwere all show reflexes of -we so this particle, to which we can assign no meaning at present, may have played a role in alienable possessive constructions.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources