past (suffix or post clitic)



Proto-Siouan *-rą < *ʔų (?)

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-rą < *ʔų


Chiwere -ną ‘it is’ GMsf

Proto-Dhegiha *-rą < *ʔų

Omaha-Ponca ðą ‘up to now, heretofore, past’

Kanza/Kaw -na JOD

Osage no , †ną ‘does’ LF:112a

Quapaw -na ‘past action; imperfective \\quso JOD; RR’



Biloxi naxó , †ną- ‘sign of past time’ D&S:232a , náⁿni , †ną- ‘a sign of past action (?)’ D&S:234b , nani, naⁿni , †ną- ‘can, might’ D&S:232a

General comment

Care must be taken here to exclude particles which are homophones, e.g.

in some languages the šną ‘habitual’ loses its fricative. Some of these forms are derived from *ʔų ‘do’, as in Quapaw is conjugated , , . The initial n of the citation form would be the epenthetic glide, r, in a nasal environment. This explains 2nd and 3rd person homophony in Quapaw. In Omaha ðą cooccurs with šną ‘habitual’, so the situation there appears to parallel Quapaw grammatically.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources