Proto-Siouan *xʔó•he

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *xʔo•h-


Lakota xʔokhá ‘sing with the drum, a singer’ EJ


Hoocąk xʔoóke ‘adult of parent type, no sex distinction’ JWE , x’ooke ‘parent’ MM , x’oke , x’ooke

Proto-Dhegiha *waxʔó

Omaha-Ponca waʔó ‘woman’ RR

Kanza/Kaw wakʔó ‘woman’ RR

Osage wakʔó ‘woman’ RR

Quapaw waxʔó ‘woman’ RR

Proto-Southeastern *xó•hi

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *xohi

Biloxi xohí , †xohí ‘old’ D&S:222a

Ofo shóhi , †shóhi ‘old’


Tutelo hoakai, hōhka , †ho•hka ‘old’ HH:41

General comment

The Dakota form is of doubtful cognacy; cf. DH xokkásing’ without ʔ. This is one of several roots (cf. ???) in which Ofo shows sh as the regular correspondent of *xʔ. Whatever glottalization represented, it seems to have separate reflexes from ordinary consonants in Ofo. Although DH has xokkásing’ without ʔ, the Dakota and DH forms may be partially cognate via fricative symbolism.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources