middle; inside

adverb physical_spatial


Proto-Siouan *yó•ka ~ *ró•ka

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *ro•ka AWJ

Crow bíilukaa ‘our people; we Crows’ GG:29 , apsáalooka ‘Crow’ GG:12, RGG:15

Hidatsa ro•ka:, no•ka ‘people of one’s clan or family’ AWJ

Pre-Mandan *rokE

Mandan wí•roke ‘sack’ RTC , tíroke ‘in the house’ RTC , wąrą́rokta ‘in the woods’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *róka:

Proto-Dakota *čhoká:

Lakota čhoka: ‘center of camp’ RTC , čhoką́ ‘middle’ RTC , čhokáta ‘in the middle’ RTC , ċókab ‘in the midst, central’ EB:132b , cokápa ‘in the midst, in the center’ EB:133a , cokál ‘in the midst’ cont. of cokata’ EB:133a , coką́yą ‘the middle; in the middle’ EB:133a , icókab ‘before’ micókab, ùkicokab’ EB:208 , icókabya ‘before; between’ EB:208 , icókąyą ‘in the middle, between’ EB:208

Dakota †čhoká, čoká- ‘middle’ SRR:103a


Chiwere lótata ‘inside’ GM

Hoocąk róok ‘inner, interior;inside’ JWE , rook ‘inside’ JWE , roogéǰa ‘indoors’ KM:240 , rookeja ‘inside, n.’ KM:2638 , čiirok , ciirok (> cii + rook) , róok , rook

Proto-Dhegiha *-roka

Omaha-Ponca hóðoga ‘camp circle’

Osage ṭsiúthuga , †hci-óðoka ‘interior of house’ LF:164a



Ofo tcóka , †čóka ‘in, under’ D&S:329b , tcókta.ta. , †čóktata ‘in the middle’ D&S:329b

General comment

Hidatsa ro•ka ‘people of one’s clan or family’ contrasts with Hidatsa ruxpa•ka ‘people in general’; similarly, Crow bíilukaa ‘our people’ contrasts with bilaxpáaka ‘people; person’. The *ro•k form seems to refer to camp or village organization by clans. This term may well have been inalienably possessed to the extent that it refers to one’s kin. If this is true, a Proto-Siouan *i-ró•ka is implied and the Lakota form is explained, as čh is the normal reflex of *r following 3s inalienable possessive prefix. This leaves Ofo forms with apparent *y unexplained, however. If Proto-Siouan was *i-yó•ka then the DH forms remain unexplained.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources