verb person


Proto-Siouan *waro•(-ka), *wi-ró•(-ka)

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *waró

Crow bulá ‘male’ RG

Hidatsa wa•ró•ka ‘elk’ J , ma•ró•ka

Pre-Mandan *wrok

Mandan werók ‘bull’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *wro•ka

Proto-Dakota *wroká

Lakota bloká ‘male’ RTC

Dakota mdoká ‘male’ SRR:313b

Stoney mnogá RS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *Ró•ke

Chiwere dó•ge ‘male’ RR

Otoe čhédo ‘male bison’ JDH

Hoocąk tcedok ‘buffalo bull’ MM:171 , ceetok, ceetos ‘male’ JOD , toga , -tok

Proto-Dhegiha *Roka

Omaha-Ponca núga , †nóga ‘male’ EST

Kanza/Kaw dogá ‘male’ RR

Osage dogá , †toká ‘male (ritual expression)’ LF:38a

Quapaw tóka ‘male’ JOD

Proto-Southeastern *-ro•-

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *iro•(-ki)

Biloxi ĭndoké, ĭntokí, aⁿyaṭó , †do(-ki) ‘man’ D&S:200a

Ofo amaⁿ´ itō´ki , †itó•ki ‘male turkey’ D&S:320, JSS , itó , †itó•ki D&S:325a


Tutelo nōna , †no•na ‘man’ H

General comment

Note OVS forms with and without final syllable. For the Mandan form, Hollow suggested the analysis wrorhusband’ + -ka ‘nominal suffix’. This should produce *weró•k, however. Tutelo and Mandan may match for postvocalic -r.

On the postulated Proto-Crow-Hidatsa form, cf. the discussion under ‘brother, woman’s elder (1)’. Hidatsa has inexplicably lengthened the vowels and added the common suffix -ka. Crow has inexplicably transposed a/o, counter to the usual rightward vowel exchange. Ofo, but not Hidatsa as one might expect, suggests a Proto-Siouan prefix *wi-, which is normal with animal terms and also apparently occurs with ‘female animal’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources