long, extended in time or space > distant, then

particle perceptual


Proto-Siouan *hą

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *ha

Crow shía ‘a long time’ GG:63 , shía ‘long after’ GG:66

Hidatsa ha- in: hak ‘then’ H&V , ha- in: hakha• ‘this time’ H&V , ha- in: haruk ‘and then, when’ J , ha- in: háwa ‘then, again, there, and’ H&V , -a- in: tía ‘to be late, take a long time’ J , -a- in: tíatha•c; -tha• ‘not long ago; not’ H&V , -a- in: tíaruk šíakha ‘after a long time’ J


Mandan hą́- in: hą́hik ‘time, occasion’ H:65 , -hą- in: té•hąʔš ‘it’s far away’ RTC , -hą- ‘it’s far away’ H:483 , -hą- in: téhąta

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-hą


Lakota -hą́ in: ehą́ ‘then, at that time; then, at that place; to, thus far’ [word is used when one is pointing at the same time, as in saying: He emp (please check the content of this field)] EB:139 , -hą́- in: ehą́na ‘long ago’ [in ref. to time and place] EB:140 , -hą́- in: ehą́tą ‘already, ever since, from the outset’ [of tohą] EB:140 , -hą́- in: ehą́tąhą ‘from, from that time or place’ [cf. lehąkeca, hehąkeca] EB:140 , -hą́- in: ehą́tu ‘at that time’ EB:140 , -hą́- in: ehą́tuke ‘just then, then; indeed’ EB:140 , -hą́- in: ehą́tuxci ‘just at that time’ EB:140 , -hą́- in: ehą́yą ‘so far, as far as, up to a certain mark, as in filling a bottle’ EB:140 , -hą in: héhą ‘at that time, then’ EB:171 , -hą- in: hehą́xca ‘then and not until then’ EB:171 , -hą- in: héhąni ‘then’ EB:171 , -hą- in: hehą́tą ‘from that time; therefore’ EB:171 , -hą- in: hehą́tąhą ‘from that time, therefore’ EB:171 , -hą- in: hehą́tu ‘at that time, then’ EB:171 , -hą- in: hehą́yą ‘so far, in ref. to places; so long, in ref. to time; from that time at that time, then’ EB:171 , -hą in: kahą́ ‘to this, thus far’ EB:273 , -hą- in: kahą́tu ‘to that, so far, so long’ EB:273 , -hą- in: kahą́tuya ‘so far’ EB:273 , -hą- in: kahą́yą ‘thus far’ EB:273 , -hą- in: kahą́yela ‘only so far, only so long’ EB:324 , -hą in: lehą́ ‘now, thus far; at this place’ EB:814 , -hą- in: lehą́kata ‘Hither, from far away’ EB:324 , -hą- in: lehą́keca ‘so long, so high, so short’ EB:324 , -hą- in: lehą́tąhą ‘from this’ EB:324 , -hą- in: lehą́tu ‘to this, thus far; now’ EB:324 , -hą- in: lehą́tuya ‘to this extent, on this wise’ EB:324 , -hą- in: lehą́yą ‘so far, in space; so long, in time’ EB:324 , -hą in: letą́hą ‘from this place or this time’ EB:486a , -hą in: théhą ‘far, long’ EB:486 , -hą- in: téhątą ‘from afar’ EB:486 , -hą- in: théhątąhą ‘from afar’ EB:486b , -hą- in: théhątu ‘far off, to or at a great distance’ EB:486b , -hą- in: théhątuya ‘far off, to or at a great distance’ EB:486 , -hą- in: téhąyą ‘far away’ EB:493 , -hą in: tohą́hą ‘At what time? At what times, places? How far?’ EB:493 , -hą- in: tohą́keca ‘How long? this usually ref. to space’’ EB:493 , -hą- in: tóhąšna ‘sometime’ EB:493 , -hą- in: tohą́tą ‘for all the past time’ EB:493 , -hą- in: tohą́tu ‘When?’ EB:493 , -hą- in: tóhąxci ‘some other time in the future perhaps’ EB:493 , -hą- in: tohą́yą ‘as long as, as far as; for how long?’

Dakota -han , †hą ‘far’ [“-han” in téhan] , -han- , †hą ‘distant’ [“-han-” in téhantu]

Proto-Dhegiha *-hą

Kanza/Kaw -hą in: ákkihą ‘beyond, in the distant past’ RR

Osage áhkihą ‘to go beyond’



Biloxi haⁿtcá , †hąčá ‘implies uncertainty’ D&S:196a , haⁿ , †hąčá ‘and or when: always follows immediately after some verb’ D&S:195b , -haⁿ in: eḳaⁿhaⁿ´ (= eḳaⁿHaⁿ, ekaⁿhaⁿ, eḳihaⁿ, eḳehaⁿ´) , †hąčá ‘and then, whereupon’

General comment

Boas and Deloria (p. 119, para. 155, nmbr. 13) compare -hąkeca ‘it is of that length’ with hąska ‘long’. Their observation is highly suggestive, though presumably hąska is bi-morphemic, from and ske/anear’ > ‘like, similar’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources