locative, demonstrative

particle n/a



Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-ka


Lakota -ka in: laxcaka ‘very’ [suff. particle.] EB:322a , -ka in: tóka ‘why? how is it? what is up?’ [this usually ref. to space; cf. lehąkeca, hehąkeca] EB:494a , -ca in: ecéca ‘to be so, be affected with, as with a cold or disease, to be like’ [tokeca imatokeca; perhaps better, ítokeca] EB:137 , -ca in: héca ‘such, such like; belonging to such a clan, or such a description’ EB:169 , -ca in: kákheca ‘in this manner, thus’ EB:279 , -ca in: léca ‘such as this’ EB:323 , -ca in: léceca ‘like this, such as’ EB:323 , -ca in: séca ‘as, though, seemingly’ EB:453a , -ca in: tohą́keca ‘How long?’ EB:493 , -ca in: itókeca ‘to be altered, changed; to be affected by in any way’ EB:241 , -ca in: tónakeca ‘some, a few. also, interrog. how many, how much?’ EB:499


Hoocąk -gá in: hagá ‘time, occurrence, instance’ KM:554 , -ga in: haga ‘how many, how much? quite a number’ KM:1677 , -ga in: jaaną́ga ‘that much’ KM:4006 , -ga in: jaanąga , -ga in: žeeną́ga , -ga in: žeenąga

Proto-Dhegiha *-ka

Kanza/Kaw -ga in: šéga, šegá ‘yonder, in that vi. place’ [JOD] RR , -gá in: yegá ‘here, right here’ RR , -gá- in: yegáha ‘here, right here’ RR

Osage -ka in: ṭsé-ga , †-ka ‘recently; anew; early; new, as a new blanket, a new robe’ LF:158b

Quapaw -šeka ‘there’ RR



Biloxi -ká in: yañká , †-ká ‘when’ D&S:290a , -ká in: tuká , †-ká ‘that way; in that direction’ D&S:281b


Catawba -kát in: hukát , †-kát ‘now’ KS:168 , -ká in: hαkáte , †-ká ‘now indeed’ KS:168 , ya•kəwɛʔ , †-kə- ‘that woman’ [†-kə- in “ya•kəwɛʔ”] KS:225 , -ką´ in: dé•kα´ , †-ką´ ‘that’s me’ KS:225 , -ką in: mónαkα , †-ką ‘the ground’ KS:225 , -ką in: ókα , †-ką ‘he’ KS:125 , -ka in: tci•(ka) , †-ka ‘there’ KS:227

General comment

The Catawba entries appear to be quite flexible morphotactically and are listed with both the prefixed and suffixed Siouan forms which are best considered distinct morphemes.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources